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When a Firmware is complied as Position Independent Executable it needs
to request GDT fixup by passing size of the memory region to
The Global descriptor table fixup will be done early on during cold boot
process of primary core.
Currently only BL31 supports PIE, but in future when BL2_AT_EL3 will be
compiled as PIE, it can simply pass fixup size to the common el3
entrypoint macro to fixup GDT.
The reason for this patch was to overcome the bug introduced by SHA
330ead806 which called fixup routine for each core causing
re-initializing of global pointers thus overwriting any changes
done by the previous core.
Signed-off-by: Manish Pandey <firstname.lastname@example.org>
This patch provides the following features and makes modifications
- Individual APIAKey key generation for each CPU.
- New key generation on every BL31 warm boot and TSP CPU On event.
- Per-CPU storage of APIAKey added in percpu_data
of cpu_data structure.
- `plat_init_apiakey()` function replaced with `plat_init_apkey()`
which returns 128-bit value and uses Generic timer physical counter
value to increase the randomness of the generated key.
The new function can be used for generation of all ARMv8.3-PAuth keys
- ARMv8.3-PAuth specific code placed in `lib\extensions\pauth`.
- New `pauth_init_enable_el1()` and `pauth_init_enable_el3()` functions
generate, program and enable APIAKey_EL1 for EL1 and EL3 respectively;
pauth_disable_el1()` and `pauth_disable_el3()` functions disable
PAuth for EL1 and EL3 respectively;
`pauth_load_bl31_apiakey()` loads saved per-CPU APIAKey_EL1 from
- Combined `save_gp_pauth_registers()` function replaces calls to
`save_gp_registers()` and `pauth_context_save()`;
`restore_gp_pauth_registers()` replaces `pauth_context_restore()`
and `restore_gp_registers()` calls.
- `restore_gp_registers_eret()` function removed with corresponding
code placed in `el3_exit()`.
- Fixed the issue when `pauth_t pauth_ctx` structure allocated space
for 12 uint64_t PAuth registers instead of 10 by removal of macro
CTX_PACGAKEY_END from `include/lib/el3_runtime/aarch64/context.h`
and assigning its value to CTX_PAUTH_REGS_END.
- Use of MODE_SP_ELX and MODE_SP_EL0 macro definitions
in `msr spsel` instruction instead of hard-coded values.
- Changes in documentation related to ARMv8.3-PAuth and ARMv8.5-BTI.
Signed-off-by: Alexei Fedorov <Alexei.Fedorov@arm.com>
The size increase after enabling options related to ARMv8.3-PAuth is:
| | text | bss | data | rodata |
| CTX_INCLUDE_PAUTH_REGS = 1 | +108 | +192 | +0 | +0 |
| | 0.5% | 0.8% | | |
| ENABLE_PAUTH = 1 | +748 | +192 | +16 | +0 |
| | 3.7% | 0.8% | 7.0% | |
Results calculated with the following build configuration:
make PLAT=fvp SPD=tspd DEBUG=1 \
Signed-off-by: Antonio Nino Diaz <email@example.com>
This patch updates the el3_arch_init_common macro so that it fully
initialises essential control registers rather then relying on hardware
to set the reset values.
The context management functions are also updated to fully initialise
the appropriate control registers when initialising the non-secure and
secure context structures and when preparing to leave EL3 for a lower
This gives better alignement with the ARM ARM which states that software
must initialise RES0 and RES1 fields with 0 / 1.
This patch also corrects the following typos:
"NASCR definitions" -> "NSACR definitions"
Signed-off-by: David Cunado <firstname.lastname@example.org>
To make software license auditing simpler, use SPDX license
identifiers instead of duplicating the license text in every file.
NOTE: Files that have been imported by FreeBSD have not been modified.
Signed-off-by: dp-arm <email@example.com>
As of now BL1 loads and execute BL2 based on hard coded information
provided in BL1. But due to addition of support for upcoming Firmware
Update feature, BL1 now require more flexible approach to load and
run different images using information provided by the platform.
This patch adds new mechanism to load and execute images based on
platform provided image id's. BL1 now queries the platform to fetch
the image id of the next image to be loaded and executed. In order
to achieve this, a new struct image_desc_t was added which holds the
information about images, such as: ep_info and image_info.
This patch introduces following platform porting functions:
unsigned int bl1_plat_get_next_image_id(void);
This is used to identify the next image to be loaded
and executed by BL1.
struct image_desc *bl1_plat_get_image_desc(unsigned int image_id);
This is used to retrieve the image_desc for given image_id.
void bl1_plat_set_ep_info(unsigned int image_id,
struct entry_point_info *ep_info);
This function allows platforms to update ep_info for given
The plat_bl1_common.c file provides default weak implementations of
all above functions, the `bl1_plat_get_image_desc()` always return
BL2 image descriptor, the `bl1_plat_get_next_image_id()` always return
BL2 image ID and `bl1_plat_set_ep_info()` is empty and just returns.
These functions gets compiled into all BL1 platforms by default.
Platform setup in BL1, using `bl1_platform_setup()`, is now done
_after_ the initialization of authentication module. This change
provides the opportunity to use authentication while doing the
platform setup in BL1.
In order to store secure/non-secure context, BL31 uses percpu_data
to store context pointer for each core. In case of BL1 only the
primary CPU will be active hence percpu_data is not required to
store the context pointer.
This patch introduce bl1_cpu_context and bl1_cpu_context_ptr to
store the context and context pointers respectively. It also also
re-defines cm_get_context() and cm_set_context() for BL1 in
BL1 now follows the BL31 pattern of using SP_EL0 for the C runtime
environment, to support resuming execution from a previously saved
NOTE: THE `bl1_plat_set_bl2_ep_info()` PLATFORM PORTING FUNCTION IS
NO LONGER CALLED BY BL1 COMMON CODE. PLATFORMS THAT OVERRIDE
THIS FUNCTION MAY NEED TO IMPLEMENT `bl1_plat_set_ep_info()`
INSTEAD TO MAINTAIN EXISTING BEHAVIOUR.
This patch introduces a new build option named COLD_BOOT_SINGLE_CPU,
which allows platforms that only release a single CPU out of reset to
slightly optimise their cold boot code, both in terms of code size
COLD_BOOT_SINGLE_CPU defaults to 0, which assumes that the platform
may release several CPUs out of reset. In this case, the cold reset
code needs to coordinate all CPUs via the usual primary/secondary
If a platform guarantees that only a single CPU will ever be released
out of reset, there is no need to arbitrate execution ; the notion of
primary and secondary CPUs itself no longer exists. Such platforms
may set COLD_BOOT_SINGLE_CPU to 1 in order to compile out the
primary/secondary CPU identification in the cold reset code.
All ARM standard platforms can release several CPUs out of reset
so they use COLD_BOOT_SINGLE_CPU=0. However, on CSS platforms like
Juno, bringing up more than one CPU at reset should only be attempted
when booting an EL3 payload, as it is not fully supported in the
normal boot flow.
For platforms using COLD_BOOT_SINGLE_CPU=1, the following 2 platform
APIs become optional:
The Porting Guide has been updated to reflect that.
User Guide updated as well.
This patch introduces a new platform build option, called
PROGRAMMABLE_RESET_ADDRESS, which tells whether the platform has
a programmable or fixed reset vector address.
If the reset vector address is fixed then the code relies on the
platform_get_entrypoint() mailbox mechanism to figure out where
it is supposed to jump. On the other hand, if it is programmable
then it is assumed that the platform code will program directly
the right address into the RVBAR register (instead of using the
mailbox redirection) so the mailbox is ignored in this case.
The attempt to run the CPU reset code as soon as possible after reset
results in highly complex conditional code relating to the
This patch relaxes this requirement a little. In the BL1, BL3-1 and
PSCI entrypoints code, the sequence of operations is now as follows:
1) Detect whether it is a cold or warm boot;
2) For cold boot, detect whether it is the primary or a secondary
CPU. This is needed to handle multiple CPUs entering cold reset
3) Run the CPU init code.
This patch also abstracts the EL3 registers initialisation done by
the BL1, BL3-1 and PSCI entrypoints into common code.
This improves code re-use and consolidates the code flows for
different types of systems.
NOTE: THE FUNCTION plat_secondary_cold_boot() IS NOW EXPECTED TO
NEVER RETURN. THIS PATCH FORCES PLATFORM PORTS THAT RELIED ON THE
FORMER RETRY LOOP AT THE CALL SITE TO MODIFY THEIR IMPLEMENTATION.
OTHERWISE, SECONDARY CPUS WILL PANIC.
In order for the symbol table in the ELF file to contain the size of
functions written in assembly, it is necessary to report it to the
assembler using the .size directive.
To fulfil the above requirements, this patch introduces an 'endfunc'
macro which contains the .endfunc and .size directives. It also adds
a .func directive to the 'func' assembler macro.
The .func/.endfunc have been used so the assembler can fail if
endfunc is omitted.
Signed-off-by: Kévin Petit <firstname.lastname@example.org>
This patch extends the build option `USE_COHERENT_MEMORY` to
conditionally remove coherent memory from the memory maps of
all boot loader stages. The patch also adds necessary
documentation for coherent memory removal in firmware-design,
porting and user guides.
This patch introduces a framework which will allow CPUs to perform
implementation defined actions after a CPU reset, during a CPU or cluster power
down, and when a crash occurs. CPU specific reset handlers have been implemented
in this patch. Other handlers will be implemented in subsequent patches.
Also moved cpu_helpers.S to the new directory lib/cpus/aarch64/.
This patch disables routing of external aborts from lower exception levels to
EL3 and ensures that a SError interrupt generated as a result of execution in
EL3 is taken locally instead of a lower exception level.
The SError interrupt is enabled in the TSP code only when the operation has not
been directly initiated by the normal world. This is to prevent the possibility
of an asynchronous external abort which originated in normal world from being
taken when execution is in S-EL1.
This patch reworks the manner in which the M,A, C, SA, I, WXN & EE bits of
SCTLR_EL3 & SCTLR_EL1 are managed. The EE bit is cleared immediately after reset
in EL3. The I, A and SA bits are set next in EL3 and immediately upon entry in
S-EL1. These bits are no longer managed in the blX_arch_setup() functions. They
do not have to be saved and restored either. The M, WXN and optionally the C
bit are set in the enable_mmu_elX() function. This is done during both the warm
and cold boot paths.
This patch reworks the cold boot path across the BL1, BL2, BL3-1 and BL3-2 boot
loader stages to not use stacks allocated in coherent memory for early platform
setup and enabling the MMU. Stacks allocated in normal memory are used instead.
Attributes for stack memory change from nGnRnE when the MMU is disabled to
Normal WBWA Inner-shareable when the MMU and data cache are enabled. It is
possible for the CPU to read stale stack memory after the MMU is enabled from
another CPUs cache. Hence, it is unsafe to turn on the MMU and data cache while
using normal stacks when multiple CPUs are a part of the same coherency
domain. It is safe to do so in the cold boot path as only the primary cpu
executes it. The secondary cpus are in a quiescent state.
This patch does not remove the allocation of coherent stack memory. That is done
in a subsequent patch.
This patch reworks FVP specific code responsible for determining
the entry point information for BL3-2 and BL3-3 stages when BL3-1
is configured as the reset handler.
This change adds optional reset vector support to BL3-1
which means BL3-1 entry point can detect cold/warm boot,
initialise primary cpu, set up cci and mail box.
When using BL3-1 as a reset vector it is assumed that
the BL3-1 platform code can determine the location of
the BL3-2 images, or load them as there are no parameters
that can be passed to BL3-1 at reset.
It also fixes the incorrect initialisation of mailbox
registers on the FVP platform
This feature can be enabled by building the code with
make variable RESET_TO_BL31 set as 1
Set processor endianness immediately after RESET v2
Instead of using the system register helper functions to read
or write system registers, assembler coded functions should
use MRS/MSR instructions. This results in faster and more
This change replaces all usage of the helper functions with
direct register accesses.
The current code does not always use data and instruction
barriers as required by the architecture and frequently uses
barriers excessively due to their inclusion in all of the
write_*() helper functions.
Barriers should be used explicitly in assembler or C code
when modifying processor state that requires the barriers in
order to enable review of correctness of the code.
This patch removes the barriers from the helper functions and
introduces them as necessary elsewhere in the code.
PORTING NOTE: check any port of Trusted Firmware for use of
system register helper functions for reliance on the previous
barrier behaviour and add explicit barriers as necessary.
SCTLR_EL3.EE is being configured too late in bl1_arch_setup() and
bl31_arch_setup() after data accesses have already occured on
the cold and warm boot paths.
This control bit must be configured immediately on CPU reset to
match the endian state of the firmware (little endian).
This extends the --gc-sections behaviour to the many assembler
support functions in the firmware images by placing each function
into its own code section. This is achieved by creating a 'func'
macro used to declare each function label.
bl1/aarch64/early_exceptions.S used to be re-used by BL2, BL3-1 and
BL3-2. There was some early SMC handling code in there that was not
required by the other bootloader stages. Therefore this patch
introduces an even simpler exception vector source file for BL2,
BL3-1 and BL3-2.
At present, the entry point for each BL image is specified via the
Makefiles and provided on the command line to the linker. When using a
link script the entry point should rather be specified via the ENTRY()
directive in the link script.
This patch updates linker scripts of all BL images to specify the entry
point using the ENTRY() directive. It also removes the --entry flag
passed to the linker through Makefile.
Fixes issue ARM-software/tf-issues#66
Ctags seem to have a problem with generating tags for assembler symbols
when a comment immediately follows an assembly label.
This patch inserts a single space character between the label
definition and the following comments to help ctags.
The patch is generated by the command:
git ls-files -- \*.S | xargs sed -i 's/^\([^:]\+\):;/\1: ;/1'
Traps when accessing architectural features are disabled by clearing bits
in CPTR_EL3 during early boot, including accesses to floating point
registers. The value of this register was previously undetermined, causing
unwanted traps to EL3. Future EL3 code (for example, context save/restore
code) may use floating point registers, although they are not used by current
Also, the '-mgeneral-regs-only' flag is enabled in the GCC settings to
prevent generation of code that uses floating point registers.
- Add instructions for contributing to ARM Trusted Firmware.
- Update copyright text in all files to acknowledge contributors.
This patch makes sure the C runtime environment is properly
initialised before executing any C code.
- Zero-initialise NOBITS sections (e.g. the bss section).
- Relocate BL1 data from ROM to RAM.
- Check at link-time that bootloader images will fit in memory
at run time and that they won't overlap each other.
- Remove text and rodata orphan sections.
- Define new linker symbols to remove the need for platform setup
code to know the order of sections.
- Reduce the size of the raw binary images by cutting some sections
out of the disk image and allocating them at load time, whenever
- Rework alignment constraints on sections.
- Remove unused linker symbols.
- Homogenize linker symbols names across all BLs.
- Add some comments in the linker scripts.
blx_plat_arch_setup() should only perform platform-specific
architectural setup, e.g. enabling the MMU. This patch moves
generic architectural setup code out of blx_plat_arch_setup().